本文将向你介绍从Linux Mint 18.3 “Sylvia”升级到Linux Mint 19“Tara”的方法。当然，如果你的电脑上没有安装过Linux Mint，直接下载Linux Mint 19 “Tara”安装即可，在文中最下方附有安装Linux Mint教程的链接。
升级到Linux Mint 19的方法
从Linux Mint 18.3 “Sylvia”升级到Linux Mint 19 “Tara”非常简单，但是在升级之前，你应该确保使用Timeshift实用程序备份重要的文件。然后，打开终端并且使用“apt install mintupgrade”命令安装mintupgrade软件包。
安装mintupgrade软件包后，你可以通过在终端模拟器中运行“mintupgrade download”命令来下载所需的软件包，然后使用“mintupgrade upgrade”命令来升级到Linux Mint 19 “Tara”以应用升级。在升级成功后，必须重新启动计算机。
附官方指南：How to upgrade to Linux Mint 19
This tutorial explains how to upgrade to Linux Mint 19.
B. General considerations
B1. Do you need to upgrade?
Linux Mint 17.x (17, 17.1, 17.2 and 17.3) will be supported until 2019.
Linux Mint 18.x (18, 18.1, 18.2 and 18.3) will be supported until 2021.
If your version of Linux Mint is still supported, and you are happy with your current system, then you don't need to upgrade.
B2. Did you try Linux Mint 19 on this computer?
Each new version of Linux Mint comes with a new kernel. This means that it handles hardware differently. For instance, you may find out that a graphic card or a wireless adapter which currently works fine for you under Linux Mint, isn't recognized by the newer version of Linux Mint you're planning to upgrade to. In some cases, this could mean that upgrading to this release is the wrong decision, maybe you're better off skipping that particular release? There's only one way to know: you need to try it.
Linux Mint comes as an ISO image which can be burnt to a DVD or a USB stick. Thanks to this, you can try the newer release on your computer and see if your hardware is recognized without installing and before upgrading.
B3. Did you create a system snapshot?
If anything breaks or if anything goes wrong during the upgrade, you can go back in time and revert all changes by restoring your latest system snapshot. Whatever happens, you're covered.
B4. Did you make backups?
Your personal data is the most valuable thing in your computer. If anything happens and you break your operating system, it's not a problem, it can be reinstalled or restored via a system snapshot. If you lose your data or you're unable to access it... that's a different story.
To be safe, make a full backup of your data on an external device (USB stick or DVD).
To upgrade to Linux Mint 19 you need to satisfy the following requirements.
C1. Experience with APT and the command line
Upgrading to a newer package base is not trivial and it should not be performed by novice users.
You need to know how to type commands and read their output.
You also need to be experienced with APT. During the upgrade you'll need to understand the output of APT commands. You'll need to understand if a package needs to be removed, if it blocks the upgrade, if it conflicts with another package etc etc.
C2. Linux Mint 18.3 Cinnamon, MATE or Xfce edition
The upgrade tool only upgrades Linux Mint 18.3 Cinnamon, MATE or Xfce edition.
If you are running Linux Mint 18, 18.1 or 18.2, you first need to upgrade to Linux Mint 18.3 using the Update Manager.详情请看升级到Linux Mint 18.3的方法。
C2. Timeshift snapshot
To install timeshift, open a terminal and type:
apt install timeshift
Then launch "Menu -> Administration -> Timeshift".
Follow the wizard to select a destination for your snapshots.
In the toolbar, click on the "Create" button to make a manual snapshot of your operating system.
If anything goes wrong, you'll be able to restore your operating to this current state, either from within Linux Mint, or by launching Timeshift from a live Mint session (live DVD or live USB).
To know which display manager you are currently using, open a terminal and type:
If the result is "/usr/sbin/lightdm", you can skip this step.
If the result is "/usr/sbin/mdm", you need to switch display managers by installing lightdm and removing mdm. Open a terminal and type:
apt install lightdm lightdm-settings slick-greeter
When asked to choose a display manager between MDM and LightDM, choose LightDM.
Open a terminal and type:
apt remove --purge mdm mint-mdm-themes*
sudo dpkg-reconfigure lightdm
D. How to upgrade
D1. Update your Linux Mint 18.3 system
Using the Update Manager, click on "Refresh" to refresh the APT cache and apply all updates.
D2. Give your terminal unlimited scrolling
Open a terminal.
Click on "Edit"->"Profile Preferences"->"Scrolling".
Check the "unlimited" option and click "OK".
D3. Install the upgrade tool
To install the upgrade tool, open a terminal and type:
apt install mintupgrade
D4. Check the upgrade
To simulate an upgrade, open a terminal and type:
Then follow the instructions on the screen.
This command temporarily points your system to the Linux Mint 19 repositories and calculates the impact of an upgrade.
Note that this command doesn't affect your system. After the simulation is finished, your original repositories are restored.
The output shows you if the upgrade is possible, and if it is, which packages would be upgraded, installed, removed and kept back.
It is extremely important that you pay close attention to the output of this command.
If it shows packages which are preventing the upgrade, remove them (and take note of them so you can try to reinstall them after the upgrade).
Also note any important packages in the list of packages which would be removed, so you can reinstall them after the upgrade.
Keep using "mintupgrade check" and do not proceed to the next step, until you're happy with the output.
D5. Download the package upgrades
To download the packages necessary to upgrade to Linux Mint 19, type the following command:
Note that this command doesn't actually perform the upgrade itself, but just downloads the packages.
Note also that this command points your system to the Linux Mint 19 repositories (if you want to go back to Linux Mint 18.3 after using this command, you still can, with the command "mintupgrade restore-sources").
Use the "mintupgrade download" command until all the packages are successfully downloaded.
D6. Apply the upgrades
Note: This step is non-reversible. Once you perform it, the only way to go back is by restoring a system snapshot. Make sure you've made a snapshot before following this last step.
To apply the upgrades, type the following command: